Please write a descriptive epidemiological analysis of a disease or health condition of your choice. Describe the basic patterns of this health condition by person, place, and time. Use the online library or the internet to research your health conditio

Please write a descriptive epidemiological analysis of a disease or health condition of your choice.  Describe the basic patterns of this health condition by person, place, and time.  Use the online library or the internet to research your health condition. Use the Descriptive Epidemiology Information in the Module home page.

 

Assignment Expectations, in order to earn full credit:

Please write your paper in your own words. That is the only way I can evaluate your level of understanding. Quotes are rarely needed; if necessary, they should comprise less than 10% of a paper and must be properly cited.

Even though the papers must be written in your own words, you are required to cite sources for any statement of fact or idea that is not common knowledge. You must cite the sources within the body of the paper and include a reference list at the end of the paper.

Note: Wikipedia is not an acceptable source of information. Use credible, professional, and scholarly sources such as journal articles from ProQuest or EBSCO, and government, university, or nonprofit organizations’ Web sites.

You must clearly show that you have read the module homepage and the required background materials. You are welcome to do research in addition to — but not instead of — the required readings.

Your papers will be evaluated on the following factors:References – citations are used within the body of the paper any time you state a fact or idea that is not common knowledge. A reference list is included at the end of the paper.Precision – you follow all instructions and you answer each part of the assignment.Breadth – you show broad knowledge of the module’s topic.Depth – you go into detail to show more critical thought about the specific tasks or questions in the assignment.Clarity – the extent to which you elaborate and include discussion or examples as asked.Application – the extent to which you apply the information to a real-life situation related to the assignment, if asked.

Before you begin, please review this information about When to Cite Sources http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/pages/cite/

Other resources are available at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

 

 

READ THISModular Learning Objectives

By the end of this module, the student shall be able to satisfy the following outcomes expectations:CaseUse descriptive epidemiology to study a health condition.SLPSummarize data using descriptive statistics.Interpret an epidemic curve.TDDescribe disease surveillance systems.Epidemiology is defined as the study of the amount and distribution of disease within a population by person, place, and time.  Descriptive epidemiology answers the following questions: Who is affected?  Where and when do cases occur?  It describes cases by person, place, and time.  

In epidemiologic studies, there are many characteristics that may be used to describe the affected population.  These characteristics include age, sex, ethnic group or race, social class, occupation, marital status, family variables, blood type, environmental exposures, and personality traits.  Among these characteristics, the most commonly used are age, sex, and ethnic group or race.  Age is the most important variable among the personal variables because of its effect on morbidity and mortality rates.  In general, chronic conditions tend to increase with age, while the relation of age to acute infectious diseases is less consistent.  Age is also related to the severity of infectious disease.  For example, certain organisms such as Salmonella tend to produce severe disease in the very young, the very old, and the debilitated.  

The analysis of disease rates by sex reveals a marked contrast between morbidity and mortality rates.  Death rates are higher for males than for females, but morbidity rates are generally higher in females.  Possible explanations for this disparity are that women seek medical care more frequently and perhaps earlier in the stage of disease and that the same disease tends to have a less lethal course in women than in men.

Although the classification of disease by race or ethnicity has been controversial, it has been  used traditionally in health statistics since many diseases differ considerably in frequency and severity for different racial groups.  For example, Whites have higher rates of death from arteriosclerotic heart disease, suicide, and leukemia, while African Americans have higher rates of deaths caused by hypertensive heart disease, cerebrovascular accidents, tuberculosis, homicide, and accidental death.

Social class is a commonly used concept for ranking a population into subgroups that differ in prestige, wealth and power.  Epidemiologic data indicates an inverse relationship between mortality and social class.  Because of practical considerations, occupation is often used alone as a measure of overall socioeconomic status.  The poor health status of individuals in lower socioeconomic groups may be largely due to poverty.  Because of limited financial resources and restricted access to medical care, the poor tend to underutilize preventive services.

Occupation can have a significant effect on morbidity and mortality rates since individuals spend a substantial part of their lives working in diverse conditions.  These conditions may include unfavorable physical conditions (e.g. heat and cold), chemicals, noise, and occupationally induced stress.  For example, air traffic controllers (who have unusually stressful working conditions because of the potentially disastrous effects of errors in judgment) have higher rates of hypertension and peptic ulcer.  The rates of disease among occupational groups may also differ because of selective factors (differences that caused individuals to choose the occupation, rather than the work conditions).

Marital status has been related to the level of mortality for both sexes.  Death rates have generally been lowest among the married and highest among the divorced.  The lower mortality rates among the married may be attributed to psychological and physical support provided by the spouse, selective factors, and health differences in pregnancy and childbearing (which have been inversely associated with cervical and breast cancer).

Family variables that may be associated with mortality and morbidity rates include family size, birth order, maternal age, and parental deprivation.  Larger families tend to be more common among the poor.  Therefore, children may be at a disadvantage, especially since many persons must share a family’s limited resources.  A variety of findings have indicated that first-borns, who tend to be more educated, have higher rates of asthma, peptic ulcer, and schizophrenia.  Birth order may play a role in a person’s life experiences because first-borns tend to receive more attention than his younger siblings.  The maternal age (i.e., age of a mother at the time of childbirth) is associated with birth defects, which in turn, affects morbidity and mortality rates in their children.  For example, the incidence rate of Down’s syndrome increases with maternal age.  Parental deprivation (due to death, divorce, or separation) has been found to be high among individuals with psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, individuals with tuberculosis, and those who have attempted suicide.

Blood type has been associated with several diseases.  Individuals with type A blood have an increased risk of stomach cancer, while individuals with type O blood are more likely to develop duodenal ulcer.  Environmental exposures may also affect the risk of disease.  For example, specific immunity (defined in module 1) decreases the risk of acquiring immunizable diseases, such as measles.  Cigarette smoking and exposure to asbestos increases the risk of certain cancers.  Personality traits may influence the course of illness because of differences in tendency to seek medical care and comply with medical advice.  Also, the association between coronary heart disease and personality type has been well-documented in the literature.  Type A individuals, characterized by ambition, competitiveness, and a sense of time urgency, had higher rates of heart disease than Type B individuals, who did not exhibit these characteristics.

Frequency of disease can also be described by place of occurrence, according to natural boundaries or political boundaries.  An area defined by natural boundaries may have a high or low frequency of a disease because it is characterized by environmental or climatic conditions, such as temperature, humidity, rainfall, and altitude.  Some examples include goiter (which is more common in iodine-deficient inland regions) and Lyme Disease (which is transmitted by a tick which favors humid regions, such as the Northeastern region of the U.S.).  Although natural boundaries are more useful in understanding the etiology or cause of a disease, political boundaries are more readily available.

To examine the distribution of disease even more specifically, it is common practice to plot individual cases by location (spot map).  Cases may be plotted by natural boundaries, political boundaries, census tract, facility location, etc.  A superimposed representation of environmental factors (such as water supply, milk routes, direction of prevailing winds) may also be included on the map to provide a clue about the mode of spread.

John Snow plotted one of the first spot maps to support his findings that the Broad Street pump was the source of transmission in the 1854 cholera outbreak. 

The frequency of disease occurrence is also described with respect to time.  Occurrence is often expressed on a monthly or annual basis.  Three major changes with time may be identified: secular trends, cyclic changes, and short-term fluctuations.  Secular trends refer to changes over a long period of time (i.e. years or decades).  Cyclic changes refer to periodic fluctuations in the frequency of disease.  Cycles may be seasonal (annual) or have some other periodicity.  For example, measles epidemics used to occur every two or three years.  Short-term fluctuations refer to outbreaks of disease that do not occur in cycles. 

Three statistics that are frequently used to describe epidemiology data include the mean, medium, and range.  The mean and median estimate an average value in a data set.  The background reading contains more detailed information on means and medians.  

The range is the interval between the minimum and the maximum values in a data set.  For example, if the incubation period for four individuals was 8 hours, 12 hours, 10 hours, and 5 hours, then the range would be between 5 and 12 hours. Epidemic curves are used to describe an outbreak by time.  To construct an epidemic curve, cases of disease are plotted by time of onset.  An epidemic curve reveals important information about whether an outbreak has a common source or is spread from one susceptible host to another.  Common source epidemics are outbreaks caused by an exposure of a group of persons to a common source (e.g. the Broad Street pump in the cholera outbreak investigated by John Snow).  In a common source epidemic, all of the cases develop illness within one incubation period (time period between exposure and onset of illness).  A common source epidemic is characterized by a rapid rise and fall of the epidemic curve.  Propagated epidemics do not have common sources; they are spread from one susceptible host to another (e.g. flu outbreak at a school).  In contrast to a common source epidemic, the propagated epidemic extends over a number of incubation periods.  

The shape of the curve typically contains a series of progressively larger peaks, reflective of the increasing number of cases caused by person-to-person contact, until control of the outbreak is achieved.

Sources:

Brody H. Map-making and myth-making in Broad Street:
the London cholera epidemic, 1854 The Lancet 356: 64 – 68, 2000.
Retrieved on Septemer 2, 2011 from: http://www.ph.ucla.edu/EPI/snow/mapmyth/mapmyth.html  (Click on the map to the left to view and read about Snow’s spot map.)

Jacco Wallinga and Peter Teunis: Different Epidemic Curves for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome RevealSimilar Impacts of Control Measures. AJE Vol 160:6 Sept 15, 2004 Retrieved September 2, 2011 from http://octavia.zoology.washington.edu/publications/others/WallingaAndTeunis04a.pdf

Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching MEP Book 8 Unit 5 Section 2 : Mean, Median, Mode and Range. Retrieved on September 2, 2011 from: http://www.cimt.plymouth.ac.uk/projects/mepres/book8/bk8i5/bk8_5i2.htm

 

 

 

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1. The law of conservation of energy with an explanation of how this law applies to energy use and energy…

1. The law of conservation of energy with an explanation of how this law applies to energy use and energy conversions. 2. The pros and cons of the following: fossil fuel: oil, natural gas, and coal nuclear energy Solar energy Wind power Water (hydro) power Bioconversion (biofuel) 3. Research and discuss two provisions of the Energy Policy Act, 2005, including the possibility of tax incentives.

 

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MSW

Background: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is all of the garbage, refuse, trash or junk that gets thrown away from our homes or small businesses. All of this MSW is collected and taken away. Have you wondered where it goes? In the 1950’s and 60’s it went to open dumps. In the 1970’s landfills were established but there were problems, and today there is new legislation and technology to better manage this waste.

 

For this assignment, you will review the history of MSW.Describe an open dump. Explain the environmental problems.Describe an early landfill. What are the problems associated with early landfills? Include a discussion of leachate, methane, incomplete decomposition and settling.Describe a modern landfill. What are the differences as compared to early landfills? What improvements have been made?Choose one of these landfills and explain the innovations being implemented to make the landfill more productive and to reduce its environmental impact:o    Mariannhill Landfill, South Africa

o    Puente Hills, California

o    Altamont Landfill, CA

o    Tessman Road Landfill, TX

 

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go through link first

  http://velocicosm.com/B4Qu

 

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discussion module

   Formulate an organized, clearly worded, and succinct essay that substantively covers all discussion points stated for your chosen topic. Because your essay will be scored on the degree to which you meet these standards, there is no set minimum word requirement. However, there is a set maximum word requirement – confine your essay to 500 words. Remember that we are all reading each other’s essays, and one that is succinctly written is more likely to be read and responded to, thus furthering our discussion on that topic. Include at least one graphic, video, or image that visually adds to some aspect of your essay – as they say, pictures are worth 1000 words!

Construct an engaging 3-paragraph initial post that discusses the effects and hazards of clouds in aviation. The paragraphs should address the following points:

· Paragraph 1: Describe one cloud type (other than fog – which is the topic of 3. below) that significantly effects or presents a hazard to aviation (take off, landing, or enroute) (graphics will add greatly to the discussion here). 

· Paragraph 2: Summarize the specific aviation-related effects or hazards associated with the chosen cloud type.

· Paragraph 3: You have two options for this paragraph:  1) Summarize an actual aircraft incident that illustrates the hazardous impacts of this cloud type, or 2) Give us “your take” on the relevance and importance of the topic from your own perspective – personal points of view or related experiences, for example.

 

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ENG 225: Introduction to Film -WK

NOTE: Planet of the Apes Movie. Final Film Critique- Planet of the Apes

Throughout this course, you have been writing essays and participating in discussion forums that analyze various elements of film such as theme, cinematic techniques, and genre. It is now time to combine those elements into a comprehensive analysis of one movie.

You will be completing this assignment in two stages. For the first stage, you will analyze an entire movie. In the second stage, you will reflect on how you analyzed the movie as well as how your ability to analyze film in general has evolved.

You are encouraged to incorporate writing from your Week Two and Week Three assignments if (a) you have reflected on the instructor’s feedback, (b) you have revised the relevant parts of the essays accordingly, and (c) the essays discuss the same film that you discuss here.

Stage 1: Analysis

For this stage, you will be analyzing a movie selected from the AFI’s 10 Top 10 list. The film you choose can be one that you have previously analyzed in this course. While you are allowed to choose a film that does not come from the AFI lists, you are strongly encouraged to email your professor to receive approval before doing so.

The analysis portion of your paper should be 1500 to 1800 words in length. You should analyze the film through the lens of one of the broad theories you have learned about in class (auteur theory, genre theory, formalist theory). Your analysis must address four main areas (contextual information, story/plot, aesthetic choices, and social/personal impact) and how these areas work together to develop the theme of the movie. As you construct your analysis, assume that your reader is not familiar with this film. Use your analysis to explain to your reader why they should watch this film.

In addition to the film you are analyzing, you must use three scholarly sources to support your arguments. Refer to the ENG225 Research Guide in the Ashford University Library for guidance and to locate your sources. Cite your sources (including the feature-length film) within the text of your paper and on the reference page. Cite your sources according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Your analysis must address the following components (noted in bold below):Contextual Information– In this area, you will provide some of the basic identifying information of the film. This includes:TitleDirector, cinematographer, major actors/actresses. Be sure to describe their roles in the overall design process.Year of releaseType of film (blockbuster, indie, documentary, etc.)GenreStory/Plot – In this area, you should offer a brief summary of the film, and then show how it was deployed in the narrative structure of the film. Explain the difference between the film’s story and its plot. This area can be addressed as a separate paragraph, or can be threaded throughout your analysis of the film.Aesthetic Choices– In this area, you will assess the efficacy of specific techniques and design elements employed in the film as they apply to the overarching narrative and theme of the film. These elements include:Mise en scène (e.g., lighting, sound, composition of frame, costuming, etc.)Editing (e.g., cuts and transitions, shots used, angles, etc.)Technology (i.e., analyze the impact of any notable technological effects: film stock, targeted release venue, special effects, etc.)Social/Personal Impact– In this area, you will critically address the following questions:What impact did this film have on society (i.e., politically or culturally, positive or negative)? The impact can be as major as inspiring political or social changes or as minor as inspiring the production of toys or lunchboxes.How did society affect this film (i.e., what currents in society led to the creation of the film)?If you are unable to find any information about the social impact of the film, explain the personal impact it has had on you.

Note: Not every bullet point under the four listed components will necessarily apply to your movie. However, you will still need to discuss each of the four main components thoroughly, which means that you may need to explain a concept even if it can’t be directly applied to your movie.

Your paper should be organized around a thesis statement that clarifies what you will attempt to accomplish in your paper, and how you will proceed. Additionally, you must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph. Review the Final Film Critique sample, which provides an example of a well-developed analysis as well as insight on composition.

Stage 2: Reflection

After completing your movie analysis, you will reflect on the analysis process and how you have learned to more thoroughly analyze film as well as how rigorous study of film enhances your development as a student and thinker. In this 300- to 600-word reflection, review your initial post from the “Post Your Introduction” discussion in Week One, and consider how your ability to analyze movies has changed or grown. Append your reflection to the analysis portion of your paper and submit as one document. Your reflection should be personal and exploratory in nature.

Address the following questions in your reflection:What can be gained through analyzing film?How has this changed the way you view movies?How are you able to use film theory and criticism to find and interpret meaning in movies?In what ways has this course changed your understanding of how movies are related to society?What skills have you developed during this course, and how might those skills be applied to your major, profession, and/or life?

The Final Film CritiqueMust be one document that is 1800 to 2400 words in length, comprised of a 1500- to 1800-word film analysis and a 300- to 600-word reflection.Must include a separate title and reference page, and be formatted according to APA style as outlined in Ashford Writing Center.Must include a title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.Must use at least three scholarly sources (reviews, articles, or book chapters) other than the textbook to support your points. Refer to the ENG225 Research Guide for guidance.Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

 

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Stressing Out the Rocks

Name the three principle types of stressors that are used in forming faults and folds.  (Remember: Keep It Simple – I want you to use your own words and answer these questions simply.)

 (6 points).

 

  Name the three principle types of strain that are used in forming faults and folds.  (Note: These are different than stressors.)

(6 points)

 

  What is the most commonly associated stressor for folds?

(2 points)

 

  What are the two most common folds found?  For each fold, explain the shape the fold makes. (4 points)

 

  What are the two most common categories of faults?  (Read carefully – CATEGORY – there are multiple TYPES of faults in a CATEGORY – looking for CATEGORY.)  For each category, describe how the plates/rock move in comparison to each other and what the commonly associated stressor is (remember  that stressors and strains are different).  (6 points)

 

  Define what an Oblique-Slip fault is.  Make sure to include a description of how the plates/rocks move in comparison to each other and which strains/stressors cause it to occur. (2 points)

 

  Make sure that every response to questions 1 through 6 has an APA intext citation of the source used to answer the questions.  (0.5 points per question response; 3 points total) 

 

  Below, create the reference list of all sources utilized in completing this assignment.  Make sure that the reference list is in APA format. (1 point total)

 

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SCI/275 – ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE week 4

Associate Level Material                                                                                                                          

 

Human Population and the Environment

 

Select and complete one of the following assignments:

 

Option 1: Urbanization Presentation

Option 2: Benefits and Challenges of Urbanization Photo Collage

Option 3: Benefits and Challenges of Urbanization Radio Broadcast

Option 4: Benefits and Challenges of Urbanization Paper

 Option 1: Urbanization Presentation

 

As a science teacher at the local elementary school, you were honored with the chance to attend the United Nations Conference focusing on human population and the environment. On your return, you wanted to share the knowledge you learned with your students.

 

·         Review Ch. 7 of Visualizing Environmental Science, which discusses the benefits and challenges of urbanization ..

 

·         Peform an Internet search for the 2008 Dubai awards. These awards celebrate the best practices for improving the environment. You can findsummaries of the 2008 winners of the Dubai awards on theInternet.

 

·         Create a 7- to 10-slide Microsoft®PowerPoint®presentation that describes environmental benefits and challenges of urbanization and changing population size. Include descriptions of two award winners, discussing how they overcame a challenge mentioned in your presentation.

 

·         Include how the factors produced urbanization and changing population size. 

 

·         Include detailed speaker notes.

 

·         Review the PowerPointTutorial if you need assistance building your presentation.

 

o    Enter your student website .

o    Log in with your username and password.

o    Click the Library tab.

o    SelectCenter for Writing Excellence.

o    ChooseTutorials & Guides.

o    ClickPowerPointTutorial under Software Tutorials and Guides.

 

·         Format your citations consistent with APA guidelines.

 

·         Post the Microsoft®PowerPoint ® presentationas an attachment.

  Option 2: Benefits and Challenges of Urbanization Photo Collage

 

The art gallery you work for is hosting a benefit to create awareness about the effects of population growth. You have been asked to create a slide show or collage depicting the benefits and challenges of urbanization. The collage will be the centerpiece of the benefit. 

 

·         Create a photo slide show or collage that depicts the environmental benefits and challenges of urbanization and changing population size.

·         Include how the factors produced urbanization and changing population size.

 

o    Slide show

 

·         The slide show must contain at least 10 slides and may be created using Microsoft® PowerPoint® software to compile and display the images.

·         Include captions for each slide, identifying how it is a benefit or challenge of urbanization.

 

o    Collage

 

·         The collage may be created from pictures you have cut out of newspapers or magazines, photographs from the Internet or books, or pictures you have drawn.

·         Submit a summary with the collage, explaining how each image is a benefit or challenge or urbanization.

·         You must scan or photograph the collage to submit it electronically, so consider that when you are deciding on a size for the collage.

 

·         Post the Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation as an attachment or scan the collage to your computer as a .JPG file and post it along with the summary as an attachment.

  Option 3: Benefits and Challenges of Urbanization Radio Broadcast

 

You have reached the first step of achieving your dream of being a radio announcer. You have been given an opportunity by Free Public Radio to broadcast a show about environmental science. The topic is “Environmental benefits and challenges of urbanization and changing population size.” You have decided to showcase two 2008 winners of the Dubai awards as part of your broadcast. 

 

·         Peform an Internet search for the 2008 Dubai awards. These awards celebrate the best practices for improving the environment. You can findsummaries of the 2008 winners of the Dubai awards on theInternet.

 

·         Create a 5- to 10-minute radio broadcast using AudioAce for Free Public Radio. In the broadcast, interview two award winners and address the following:

 

o    The benefits and challenges of urbanization

o    How the factors produced urbanization

o    Some challenges they overcame

 

·         Be creative with this dialogue and have fun. Remember, however, that your assignment is graded on how well it addresses the items listed above. Enlist family or friends for the different roles or change your voice for each role. You may wish to write out the script and practice it several times before making the final recording. Remember to focus on excellent pronunciation, especially of vowels.

 

·         Submit the audio link provided to you by AudioAce to your instructor.

 

  Option 4: Benefits and Challenges of Urbanization Paper

 

After reading Ch . 7, “Human Population Change and the Environment, ”your instructor wants to read your opinions on the benefits and challenges of urbanization and changing population size.

 

·         Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper that does the following:

 

o    Includeshow the factors produced urbanization and changing population size

o    Identifies three benefits and three challenges of urbanization

o    Provides current or historical event examples of each benefit and challenge

o    Explains whether you believe the benefits outweigh the challenges, or vice versa

 

·         Include an introduction and conclusion.

·         Format your citations consistent with APA guidelines.

 

 

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ASSIGNMENT 124

SEE ATTACHEMENT

 

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Geography discussion

Many of the renewable  resources which sustain life in Sub-Saharan Africa will come under  increasing threat as a direct consequence of climate change. How might  this lead to increased violent conflicts in the countries included in  this region? 

 be at least 400 to 500 words 

 works cited 

must have in-text citation

 

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